Scale-free correlations in starling flocks
I could be wrong, but at some point in time the physics from these data sets are going to have to be reconciled with the way fleets of drones interact, or they *won’t* in either case, -answers that have long been sought are going to start getting resolved.
At least now the answers are starting to arrive w/ data, where 5 years ago the mechanics of flocking / schooling behaviors were completely speculative with virtually no data.
Andrea Cavagna, 11865–11870
From bird flocks to fish schools, animal groups often seem to react to environmental perturbations as if of one mind. Most studies in collective animal behavior have aimed to understand how a globally ordered state may emerge from simple behavioral rules. Less effort has been devoted to understanding the origin of collective response, namely the way the group as a whole reacts to its environment. Yet, in the presence of strong predatory pressure on the group, collective response may yield a significant adaptive advantage. Here we suggest that collective response in animal groups may be achieved through scale-free behavioral correlations. By reconstructing the 3D position and velocity of individual birds in large flocks of starlings, we measured to what extent the velocity fluctuations of different birds are correlated to each other. We found that the range of such spatial correlation does not have a constant value, but it scales with the linear size of the flock. This result indicates that behavioral correlations are scale free: The change in the behavioral state of one animal affects and is affected by that of all other animals in the group, no matter how large the group is. Scale-free correlations provide each animal with an effective perception range much larger than the direct interindividual interaction range, thus enhancing global response to perturbations. Our results suggest that flocks behave as critical systems, poised to respond maximally to environmental perturbations.
Were Macedonians Greek?
Seems to me that I managed to forget what little I knew about the subject years ago, and this Amphipolis story has resparked my interest.
The closest I could come is “Yes and No.” Macedonia was the area to the North of Greece, but Macedonians ruled Greece at times. -The Kings were more likely to be referred to as Greek, but Greeks couldn’t understand the Macedonian language. And someone was generally referred to as Greek when they lived in a Polis and took part in Greek Culture, politics, etc. linguistic divisions.
If Ionian was one of the three major languages of the Hellenic world, -the Macedonian language was to the north of the area where these languages were spoken -and it was more “Slavic”.
Some of the best reading and lectures I’ve found on the subject come from Prof John Darnell formerly of Yale’s Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations Dept.
His lectures are so gravid with interesting Greek/ Macedonian nuggets that I could spend a whole night cross-referencing a single paragraph.
Amphipolis: There might be a fourth chamber in the Tomb
A high-ranking Ministry of Culture official told Greek news sources that the archaeologists who are currently clearing out the dirt from the third chamber in the Amphipolis tomb believe that a fourth chamber may exist.
Meanwhile, the head of the excavation Katerina Peristeri told journalists that based on the findings so far, she believes the enigmatic tomb definitely dates back to the last quarter of the 4th century B.C. Mrs. Peristeri complained about colleagues who appear in the media claiming that the tomb may have been constructed in the Roman era.
“The tomb is Macedonian. We have all the proof for that.” said Mrs. Peristeri. “It’s futile for some people to say that it is Roman. I feel indignation against some colleagues of mine that speak to the TV channels, just for 5 minutes on prime time TV without knowing anything about the excavation.” (source)