ancientpeoples:

Terracotta Lekythos (Oil flask)
c.550-530 BC
Attic Greek
This is the earliest and most complete known representation of an Attic wedding. The bridal couple with the best man behind them sit in a cart drawn by two donkeys. A mule cart with four guests follows. Other members of the procession are on foot. The woman in the lead holds two torches, indicating that the scene takes place at night. The procession heads toward the bridegroom’s house where a woman, probably the mother of the groom, awaits. The architecture of the house is carefully indicated; the white columns of the porch may be painted wood.
(Source: The Met Museum)

ancientpeoples:

Terracotta Lekythos (Oil flask)

c.550-530 BC

Attic Greek

This is the earliest and most complete known representation of an Attic wedding. The bridal couple with the best man behind them sit in a cart drawn by two donkeys. A mule cart with four guests follows. Other members of the procession are on foot. The woman in the lead holds two torches, indicating that the scene takes place at night. The procession heads toward the bridegroom’s house where a woman, probably the mother of the groom, awaits. The architecture of the house is carefully indicated; the white columns of the porch may be painted wood.

(Source: The Met Museum)

matthen:

Unrolling these circles fills a triangle with base 2 π r and height r (where r is the radius of the filled disk). Such a triangle has area π r². This does not serve as a complete proof for why this is the area of a circle, but can give you some intuition for why it should be. [code]

matthen:

Unrolling these circles fills a triangle with base 2 π r and height r (where r is the radius of the filled disk). Such a triangle has area π r². This does not serve as a complete proof for why this is the area of a circle, but can give you some intuition for why it should be. [code]

ancientpeoples:

Writing Board
12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom
c.1981-1802 BC
Gessoed boards were used for writing notes or school exercises. Like the slate writing tablets of yesteryear, they could be used repeatedly, with old texts being whitewashed to provide a “clean slate” for another. This board still bears traces of earlier writing (at left). The main text is a wordy model letter that the student copied—and surely also was expected to memorize. His many spelling mistakes have been corrected in red ink by the teacher.
(Source: The Met Museum)

ancientpeoples:

Writing Board

12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom

c.1981-1802 BC

Gessoed boards were used for writing notes or school exercises. Like the slate writing tablets of yesteryear, they could be used repeatedly, with old texts being whitewashed to provide a “clean slate” for another. This board still bears traces of earlier writing (at left). The main text is a wordy model letter that the student copied—and surely also was expected to memorize. His many spelling mistakes have been corrected in red ink by the teacher.

(Source: The Met Museum)

archaicwonder:

Jeweled and Enameled Gold Cross Necklace, from Georgia, Late 17th Century

Made with rubies, sapphires, enamel, pearls and gold. This once belonged to Princess Sophia (Sopio) Nakashidze, née Dadiani (b. circa 1861).

Artists in Georgia were among the first in the ancient world to process metals. Among the archaeological finds of the Trialeti and Bedeni mounds of southern Georgia are fine gold pins, elaborately chased, dating from the second half of the 3rd millennium BC; enamel was used in the production of Georgian jewelery by the 5th century BC.

The country’s geographical position between Turkey, Persia and the Silk Road to the south and the important commercial center of Moscow to the north resulted in foreign influences, including Indian motifs and techniques, appearing frequently in Georgian jewelery throughout the centuries; objects produced before Georgia’s incorporation into the Russian Empire in 1801 bear more markedly Eastern characteristics which, combined with the country’s rich tradition of metalwork, make Georgian jewelery distinctive.

Scale-free correlations in starling flocks

I could be wrong, but at some point in time the physics from these data sets are going to have to be reconciled with the way fleets of drones interact, or they *won’t* in either case, -answers that have long been sought are going to start getting resolved.

At least now the answers are starting to arrive w/ data, where 5 years ago the mechanics of flocking / schooling behaviors were completely speculative with virtually no data.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t3Gp4vob_t8

http://www.pnas.org/content/107/26/11865.abstract

http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2010/jul/06/birds-flock-with-scale-invariance

Abstract

Andrea Cavagna,  1186511870 

From bird flocks to fish schools, animal groups often seem to react to environmental perturbations as if of one mind. Most studies in collective animal behavior have aimed to understand how a globally ordered state may emerge from simple behavioral rules. Less effort has been devoted to understanding the origin of collective response, namely the way the group as a whole reacts to its environment. Yet, in the presence of strong predatory pressure on the group, collective response may yield a significant adaptive advantage. Here we suggest that collective response in animal groups may be achieved through scale-free behavioral correlations. By reconstructing the 3D position and velocity of individual birds in large flocks of starlings, we measured to what extent the velocity fluctuations of different birds are correlated to each other. We found that the range of such spatial correlation does not have a constant value, but it scales with the linear size of the flock. This result indicates that behavioral correlations are scale free: The change in the behavioral state of one animal affects and is affected by that of all other animals in the group, no matter how large the group is. Scale-free correlations provide each animal with an effective perception range much larger than the direct interindividual interaction range, thus enhancing global response to perturbations. Our results suggest that flocks behave as critical systems, poised to respond maximally to environmental perturbations.

ancientpeoples:

Greywacke libation dish 
The libation dish is lined with ka-arms, representing the soul of a person, and the ankh-sing is the symbol for life. Water was pour into the disk and then absorbed life-enhancing magic from the symbols. 
It is 14.5cm wide, 3.5cm high and 17.6cm long ( 5 11/16 x 1 3/8 x 6 15/16 inch.) 
Egyptian, Early dynastic Period, 1st dynasty, 3100 - 2900 BC. 
Source: Metropolitan Museum

The direction these Ka-Arms are pointing in says something about the unique ways that scenes were ordered in the Early to Mid dynastic periods. It would *seem* that they would be in the upright state as the libation is poured, but they are oriented 180 degrees from their usual direction. To me it indicates that the Ka-Arms weren’t signaling to the recipient of  libation, but to some higher authority, possibly the priest or even the God.
It would be interesting to hear more about the symbolism of this object.

ancientpeoples:

Greywacke libation dish 

The libation dish is lined with ka-arms, representing the soul of a person, and the ankh-sing is the symbol for life. Water was pour into the disk and then absorbed life-enhancing magic from the symbols. 

It is 14.5cm wide, 3.5cm high and 17.6cm long ( 5 11/16 x 1 3/8 x 6 15/16 inch.) 

Egyptian, Early dynastic Period, 1st dynasty, 3100 - 2900 BC. 

Source: Metropolitan Museum

The direction these Ka-Arms are pointing in says something about the unique ways that scenes were ordered in the Early to Mid dynastic periods. It would *seem* that they would be in the upright state as the libation is poured, but they are oriented 180 degrees from their usual direction. To me it indicates that the Ka-Arms weren’t signaling to the recipient of  libation, but to some higher authority, possibly the priest or even the God.

It would be interesting to hear more about the symbolism of this object.

Amphipolis,   Caryatid Maidens.

Amphipolis,   Caryatid Maidens.

ancient-mesopotamia:

Old Babylonian Cylinder Seal, hematite, The king makes an animal offering to Shamash. This seal was probably made in a workshop at Sippar.

ancient-mesopotamia:

Old Babylonian Cylinder Sealhematite, The king makes an animal offering to Shamash. This seal was probably made in a workshop at Sippar.

Were Macedonians Greek?

Seems to me that I managed to forget what little I knew about the subject years ago, and this Amphipolis story has resparked my interest.

The closest I could come is “Yes and No.” Macedonia was the area to the North of Greece, but Macedonians ruled Greece at times. -The Kings were more likely to be referred to as Greek, but Greeks couldn’t understand the Macedonian language. And  someone was generally referred to as Greek when they lived in a Polis and took part in Greek Culture, politics, etc. linguistic divisions.

If Ionian was one of the three major languages of the Hellenic world, -the Macedonian language was to the north of the area where these languages were spoken -and it was more “Slavic”.

Some of the best reading and lectures I’ve found on the subject come from Prof John Darnell formerly of Yale’s Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations Dept.

His lectures are so gravid with interesting Greek/ Macedonian nuggets that I could spend a whole night cross-referencing a single paragraph.

Amphipolis: There might be a fourth chamber in the Tomb

A high-ranking Ministry of Culture official told Greek news sources that the archaeologists who are currently clearing out the dirt from the third chamber in the Amphipolis tomb believe that a fourth chamber may exist.

Meanwhile, the head of the excavation Katerina Peristeri told journalists that based on the findings so far, she believes the enigmatic tomb definitely dates back to the last quarter of the 4th century B.C. Mrs. Peristeri complained about colleagues who appear in the media claiming that the tomb may have been constructed in the Roman era.

“The tomb is Macedonian. We have all the proof for that.” said Mrs. Peristeri. “It’s futile for some people to say that it is Roman. I feel indignation against some colleagues of mine that speak to the TV channels, just for 5 minutes on prime time TV without knowing anything about the excavation.” (source)

archaicwonder:

Bronze Figure of Artemis and the Stag, Late Hellenistic/Early Roman Imperial, 1st century BC/AD

ancientart:

A quick look at: Greek votive offerings, with a particular focus on those of the Archaic period from Olympia.

Since we have received everything from the Gods, and it is right to pay the giver some tithe of his gifts, we pay such a tithe of possessions in votive offering, of bodies in gifts of (hair and) adornment, and of life in sacrifices.” -Sallustius in ‘On the Gods and the Cosmos,’ XVI (translation by Gilbert Murray).

A ‘votive offering’ is essentially a gift to a god. Once dedicated, the object is thought to become the “inalienable property of that god” (Whitley 2001). In theory, almost any kind of object could be used as a votive, we even have literary accounts which speak of captured ships being dedicated as a thank offering to a god (see Herodotus VIII.121).

Here I won’t be exploring the psychology of giving such offerings, however, it is likely that the motives were not quite so straightforward as suggested by the Latin phrase ‘do ut des' (I give that you may give). While the concept of reciprocity, a cycle of exchange between human and god, is of course relevant here, one must also not underestimate the value ancient Greek society placed on visibly showing one’s piety.

The shown Greek votive offerings are from Olympia, and consist largely of tiny animals made of bronze, stone, and clay. These objects date from the 10th century BCE, though those from the 8th century are the greatest in number. From the 9th century BCE, we can see a distinct increase in the range of votive offerings, and their quality.

When writing up this article, James Whitley’s book The Archaeology of Ancient Greece (Cambridge University Press, 2001) was of use, and is recommended for those interested Greek history. Photos taken by Richard.

archaicwonder:

Ancient Greek Dog Rhyton, c. 340-325 BC
Molded into the shape of a Laconian dog, the rhyton comes from the ancient Greek colony of Apulia, in what is now southern Italy. The vessel was designed with a wide mouth at one end, with the other pierced with a small hole.
It is believed that the cup would have been used to scoop wine from a larger carrier, blocking the hole with a thumb, before releasing again to let the fluid drain out. The stunning item bears the trademark style of ancient Greece, painted in black over terracotta.

archaicwonder:

Ancient Greek Dog Rhyton, c. 340-325 BC

Molded into the shape of a Laconian dog, the rhyton comes from the ancient Greek colony of Apulia, in what is now southern Italy. The vessel was designed with a wide mouth at one end, with the other pierced with a small hole.

It is believed that the cup would have been used to scoop wine from a larger carrier, blocking the hole with a thumb, before releasing again to let the fluid drain out. The stunning item bears the trademark style of ancient Greece, painted in black over terracotta.